Why do both sides of the debate seem “right” to me? submitted by
I know, I know, a healthy debate is healthy and all - and maybe I'm just not used to the tumult and jostling which would be inevitable in a real live open major debate about something as vital as Bitcoin.
And I really do agree with the starry-eyed idealists who say Bitcoin is vital
. Imperfect as it may be, it certainly does seem to represent the first real chance we've had in the past few hundred years to try to steer our civilization and our planet away from the dead-ends and disasters which our government-issued debt-based currencies keep dragging us into.
But this particular debate, about the blocksize, doesn't seem to be getting resolved at all.
Pretty much every time I read one of the long-form major arguments contributed by Bitcoin "thinkers" who I've come to respect over the past few years, this weird thing happens: I usually end up finding myself nodding my head and agreeing
with whatever particular piece I'm reading!
But that should be impossible - because a lot of these people vehemently disagree!
So how can both sides sound so convincing to me, simply depending on whichever piece I currently
happen to be reading?
Does anyone else feel this way? Or am I just a gullible idiot? Just Do It?
When you first look at it or hear about it, increasing the size seems almost like a no-brainer: The "big-block" supporters say just increase the blocksize to 20 MB or 8 MB, or do some kind of scheduled or calculated regular increment which tries to take into account the capabilities of the infrastructure and the needs of the users. We do have the bandwidth and the memory to at least increase the blocksize now, they say - and we're probably gonna continue to have more bandwidth and memory in order to be able to keep increasing the blocksize for another couple decades - pretty much like everything else computer-based we've seen over the years (some of this stuff is called by names such as "Moore's Law").
On the other hand, whenever the "small-block" supporters warn about the utter catastrophe that a failed hard-fork would mean, I get totally freaked by their possible doomsday scenarios, which seem totally plausible and terrifying - so I end up feeling that the only way I'd want to go with a hard-fork would be if there was some pre-agreed "triggering" mechanism where the fork itself would only actually "switch on" and take effect provided that some "supermajority" of the network (of who? the miners? the full nodes?) had signaled (presumably via some kind of totally reliable p2p trustless software-based voting system?) that they do indeed "pre-agree" to actually adopt the pre-scheduled fork (and thereby avoid any
possibility whatsoever of the precious blockchain somehow tragically splitting into two and pretty much killing this cryptocurrency off in its infancy).
So in this "conservative" scenario, I'm talking about wanting at least 95% pre-adoption agreement - not the mere 75% which I recall some proposals call for, which seems like it could easily lead to a 75/25 blockchain split.
But this time, with this long drawn-out blocksize debate, the core devs, and several other important voices who have become prominent opinion shapers over the past few years, can't seem to come to any real agreement on this. Weird split among the devs
As far as I can see, there's this weird split: Gavin and Mike seem to be the only people among the devs who really want a major blocksize increase - and all the other devs seem to be vehemently against them.
But then on the other hand, the users
seem to be overwhelmingly in favor of a major increase.
And there are meta-questions about governance, about about why this didn't come out as a BIP, and what the availability of Bitcoin XT means.
And today or yesterday there was this really cool big-blockian exponential graph based on doubling the blocksize every two years for twenty years, reminding us of the pure mathematical
fact that 210
is indeed about 1000 - but not really addressing any of the game-theoretic
points raised by the small-blockians. So a lot of the users seem to like it, but when so few devs say anything positive about it, I worry: is this just yet more exponential chart porn?
On the one hand, Gavin's and Mike's blocksize increase proposal initially seemed like a no-brainer to me.
And on the other hand, all the other devs seem to be against them. Which is weird - not what I'd initially expected at all (but maybe I'm just a fool who's seduced by exponential chart porn?).
Look, I don't mean to be rude to any of the core devs, and I don't want to come off like someone wearing a tinfoil hat - but it has to cross people's minds that the powers that be (the Fed and the other central banks and the governments that use their debt-issued money to run this world into a ditch) could very well be much more scared shitless than they're letting on. If we assume that the powers that be are using their usual playbook and tactics, then it could be worth looking at the book "Confessions of an Economic Hitman" by John Perkins, to get an idea of how they might try to attack Bitcoin. So, what I'm saying is, they do have a track record of sending in "experts" to try to derail projects and keep everyone enslaved to the Creature from Jekyll Island. I'm just saying. So, without getting ad hominem - let's just make sure that our ideas can really stand scrutiny on their own - as Nick Szabo says, we need to make sure there is "more computer science, less noise" in this debate.
When Gavin Andresen first came out with the 20 MB thing - I sat back and tried to imagine if I could download 20 MB in 10 minutes (which seems to be one of the basic mathematical and technological constraints here - right?)
I figured, "Yeah, I could download that" - even with my crappy internet connection.
And I guess the telecoms might
be nice enough to continue to double our bandwidth every two years for the next couple decades – if we ask them politely?
On the other hand - I think we should be careful about entrusting the financial freedom of the world into the greedy hands of the telecoms companies - given all their shady shenanigans over the past few years in many countries. After decades of the MPAA and the FBI trying to chip away at BitTorrent, lately PirateBay has been hard to access. I would say it's quite likely that certain persons at institutions like JPMorgan and Goldman Sachs and the Fed might be very, very motivated to see Bitcoin fail - so we shouldn't be too sure about scaling plans which depend on the willingness of companies Verizon and AT&T to double our bandwith every two years. Maybe the real important hardware buildout challenge for a company like 21 (and its allies such as Qualcomm) to take on now would not be "a miner in every toaster" but rather "Google Fiber Download and Upload Speeds in every Country, including China".
I think I've read all the major stuff on the blocksize debate from Gavin Andresen, Mike Hearn, Greg Maxwell, Peter Todd, Adam Back, and Jeff Garzick and several other major contributors - and, oddly enough, all
their arguments seem reasonable - heck even Luke-Jr seems reasonable to me on the blocksize debate, and I always thought he was a whackjob overly influenced by superstition and numerology - and now today I'm reading the article by Bram Cohen - the inventor of BitTorrent - and I find myself agreeing with him too!
I say to myself: What's going on with me? How can I possibly agree with all
of these guys, if they all have such vehemently opposing viewpoints?
I mean, think back to the glory days of a couple of years ago, when all we were hearing was how this amazing unprecedented grassroots innovation called Bitcoin was going to benefit everyone from all walks of life, all around the world:
- wealthy individuals trying to preserve and transport their wealth across space and across time
- iPhone and Android users who want to buy a latte on their smartphone at Starbucks
- Venezuelans and Argentinians and Cypriots and Russian oligarchs and Greeks and anyone else whose state-backed currency sucks
- unbanked Africans who will someday be texting around money via SMS messages on their cellphones
- online content providers who will finally be able to get paid via micropayments
- smart contracts and stock brokering and lawyering and land deeding and the refrigerator calling out to order more milk and distributed anonymous corporations (DACs) automatically negotiating and adjusting driverless taxicab fares in the Uber-future of the Internet of Things
...basically the entire human race transacting everything into the blockchain.
(Although let me say that I think that people's focus on ideas like driverless cabs creating realtime fare markets based on supply and demand seems to be setting our sights a bit low as far as Bitcoin's abilities to correct the financial world's capital-misallocation problems which seem to have been made possible by infinite debt-based fiat. I would have hoped that a Bitcoin-based economy would solve much more noble, much more urgent capital-allocation problems than driverless taxicabs creating fare markets or refrigerators ordering milk on the internet of things. I was thinking more along the lines that Bitcoin would finally strangle dead-end debt-based deadly-toxic energy industries like fossil fuels and let profitable clean energy industries like Thorium LFTRs take over - but that's another topic. :=) Paradoxes in the blocksize debate
Let me summarize the major paradoxes I see here:
(1) Regarding the people (the majority of the core devs) who are against
a blocksize increase: Well, the small-blocks arguments do seem kinda weird, and certainly not very "populist", in the sense that: When on earth have end-users ever heard of a computer technology whose capacity didn't grow pretty much exponentially year-on-year? All the cool new technology we've had - from hard drives to RAM to bandwidth - started out pathetically tiny and grew to unimaginably huge over the past few decades - and all our software has in turn gotten massively powerful and big and complex (sometimes bloated) to take advantage of the enormous new capacity available.
But now suddenly, for the first time in the history of technology, we seem to have a majority of the devs, on a major p2p
project - saying: "Let's not scale the system up. It could be dangerous. It might break the whole system (if the hard-fork fails)."
I don't know, maybe I'm missing something here, maybe someone else could enlighten me, but I don't think I've ever seen this sort of thing happen in the last few decades of the history of technology - devs arguing against
scaling up p2p technology to take advantage of expected growth in infrastructure capacity.
(2) But... on the other hand... the dire warnings of the small-blockians about what could happen if a hard-fork were to fail
- wow, they do seem really dire! And these guys are pretty much all heavyweight, experienced programmers and/or game theorists and/or p2p open-source project managers.
I must say, that nearly all of the long-form arguments I've read - as well as many, many of the shorter comments I've read from many users in the threads, whose names I at least have come to more-or-less recognize over the past few months and years on reddit and bitcointalk - have been amazingly impressive in their ability to analyze all aspects of the lifecycle and management of open-source software projects, bringing up lots of serious points which I could never have come up with, and which seem to come from long experience with programming and project management - as well as dealing with economics and human nature (eg, greed - the game-theory stuff).
So a lot of really smart and experienced people with major expertise in various areas ranging from programming to management to game theory to politics to economics have been making some serious, mature, compelling arguments.
But, as I've been saying, the only problem to me is: in many of these cases, these arguments are vehemently in opposition to each other! So I find myself agreeing with pretty much all of them, one by one - which means the end result is just a giant contradiction.
I mean, today we have Bram Cohen, the inventor of BitTorrent, arguing (quite cogently and convincingly to me), that it would be dangerous to increase the blocksize. And this seems to be a guy who would know a few things about scaling out a massive global p2p network - since the protocol which he invented, BitTorrent, is now apparently responsible for like a third of the traffic on the internet (and this despite the long-term concerted efforts of major evil players such as the MPAA and the FBI to shut the whole thing down). Was the BitTorrent analogy too "glib"?
By the way - I would like to go on a slight tangent here and say that one of the main reasons why I felt so "comfortable" jumping on the Bitcoin train back a few years ago, when I first heard about it and got into it, was the whole rough analogy I saw with BitTorrent.
I remembered the perhaps paradoxical fact that when a torrent is more
popular (eg, a major movie release that just came out last week), then it actually becomes faster
to download. More people want it, so more people have a few pieces of it, so more people are able to get it from each other. A kind of self-correcting economic feedback loop, where more demand directly leads to more supply.
(BitTorrent manages to pull this off by essentially adding a certain structure to the file being shared, so that it's not simply like an append-only list
of 1 MB blocks, but rather more like an random-access or indexed array
of 1 MB chunks. Say you're downloading a film which is 700 MB. As soon as your "client" program has downloaded a single 1-MB chunk - say chunk #99 - your "client" program instantly turns into a "server" program as well - offering that chunk #99 to other clients. From my simplistic understanding, I believe the Bitcoin protocol does something similar, to provide a p2p architecture. Hence my - perhaps naïve - assumption that Bitcoin already had the right algorithms / architecture / data structure to scale.)
The efficiency of the BitTorrent network seemed to jive with that "network law" (Metcalfe's Law?) about fax machines. This law states that the more fax machines there are, the more valuable the network of fax machines becomes. Or the value of the network grows on the order of the square of the number of nodes.
This is in contrast with other technology like cars, where the more
you have, the worse
things get. The more cars there are, the more traffic jams you have, so things start going downhill. I guess this is because highway space is limited - after all, we can't pave over the entire countryside, and we never did get those flying cars we were promised, as David Graeber laments in a recent essay in The Baffler magazine :-)
And regarding the "stress test" supposedly happening right now in the middle of this ongoing blocksize debate, I don't know what worries me more: the fact that it apparently is taking only $5,000 to do a simple kind of DoS on the blockchain - or the fact that there are a few rumors swirling around saying that the unknown company doing the stress test shares the same physical mailing address with a "scam" company?
Or maybe we should just be worried that so much of this debate is happening on a handful of forums which are controlled by some guy named theymos who's already engaged in some pretty "contentious" or "controversial" behavior like blowing a million dollars on writing forum software (I guess he never heard that reddit.com software is open-source)?
So I worry that the great promise of "decentralization" might be more fragile than we originally thought. Scaling
Anyways, back to Metcalfe's Law: with virtual stuff, like torrents and fax machines, the more the merrier. The more people downloading a given movie, the faster it arrives - and the more people own fax machines, the more valuable the overall fax network.
So I kindof (naïvely?) assumed that Bitcoin, being "virtual" and p2p, would somehow scale up the same magical way BitTorrrent did. I just figured that more people using it would somehow automatically make it stronger and faster.
But now a lot of devs have started talking in terms of the old "scarcity" paradigm, talking about blockspace being a "scarce resource" and talking about "fee markets" - which seems kinda scary, and antithetical to much of the earlier rhetoric we heard about Bitcoin (the stuff about supporting our favorite creators with micropayments, and the stuff about Africans using SMS to send around payments).
Look, when some asshole is in line in front of you at the cash register and he's holding up the line so they can run his credit card
to buy a bag of Cheeto's, we tend to get pissed off at the guy - clogging up our expensive global electronic payment infrastructure to make a two-dollar purchase. And that's on a fairly efficient centralized system - and presumably after a year or so, VISA and the guy's bank can delete or compress the transaction in their SQL databases.
Now, correct me if I'm wrong, but if some guy buys a coffee on the blockchain, or if somebody pays an online artist $1.99 for their work - then that transaction, a few bytes or so, has to live on the blockchain forever?
Or is there some "pruning" thing that gets rid of it after a while?
And this could lead to another question: Viewed from the perspective of double-entry bookkeeping, is the blockchain "world-wide ledger" more like the "balance sheet" part of accounting, i.e. a snapshot
assets and liabilities? Or is it more like the "cash flow" part of accounting, i.e. a journal
revenues and expenses?
When I think of thousands of machines around the globe having to lug around multiple identical copies of a multi-gigabyte file containing some asshole's coffee purchase forever and ever... I feel like I'm ideologically drifting in one direction (where I'd end up also being against really cool stuff like online micropayments and Africans banking via SMS)... so I don't want to go there.
But on the other hand, when really experienced and battle-tested veterans with major experience in the world of open-souce programming and project management (the "small-blockians") warn of the catastrophic consequences of a possible failed hard-fork, I get freaked out and I wonder if Bitcoin really was destined to be a settlement layer for big transactions. Could the original programmer(s) possibly weigh in?
And I don't mean to appeal to authority - but heck, where the hell is Satoshi Nakamoto in all this? I do understand that he/she/they would want to maintain absolute anonymity - but on the other hand, I assume SN wants Bitcoin to succeed (both for the future of humanity - or at least for all the bitcoins SN allegedly holds :-) - and I understand there is a way that SN can cryptographically sign a message - and I understand that as the original developer of Bitcoin, SN had some very specific opinions about the blocksize... So I'm kinda wondering of Satoshi could weigh in from time to time. Just to help out a bit. I'm not saying "Show us a sign" like a deity or something - but damn it sure would be fascinating and possibly very helpful if Satoshi gave us his/hetheir 2 satoshis worth at this really confusing juncture. Are we using our capacity wisely?
I'm not a programming or game-theory whiz, I'm just a casual user who has tried to keep up with technology over the years.
It just seems weird to me that here we have this massive supercomputer (500 times more powerful than the all the supercomputers in the world combined) doing fairly straightforward "embarassingly parallel" number-crunching operations to secure a p2p world-wide ledger called the blockchain to keep track of a measly 2.1 quadrillion tokens spread out among a few billion addresses - and a couple of years ago you had people like Rick Falkvinge saying the blockchain would someday be supporting multi-million-dollar letters of credit for international trade and you had people like Andreas Antonopoulos saying the blockchain would someday allow billions of "unbanked" people to send remittances around the village or around the world dirt-cheap - and now suddenly in June 2015 we're talking about blockspace as a "scarce resource" and talking about "fee markets" and partially centralized, corporate-sponsored "Level 2" vaporware like Lightning Network and some mysterious company is "stess testing" or "DoS-ing" the system by throwing away a measly $5,000 and suddenly it sounds like the whole system could eventually head right back into PayPal and Western Union territory again, in terms of expensive fees.
When I got into Bitcoin, I really was heavily influenced by vague analogies with BitTorrent: I figured everyone would just have tiny little like utorrent-type program running on their machine (ie, Bitcoin-QT or Armory or Mycelium etc.).
I figured that just like anyone can host a their own blog or webserver, anyone would be able to host their own bank.
Yeah, Google and and Mozilla and Twitter and Facebook and WhatsApp did come along and build stuff on top of TCP/IP, so I did expect a bunch of companies to build layers on top of the Bitcoin protocol as well. But I still figured the basic unit of bitcoin client software powering the overall system would be small and personal and affordable and p2p - like a bittorrent client - or at the most, like a cheap server hosting a blog or email server.
And I figured there would be a way at the software level, at the architecture level, at the algorithmic level, at the data structure level - to let the thing scale - if not infinitely, at least fairly massively and gracefully - the same way the BitTorrent network has.
Of course, I do also understand that with BitTorrent, you're sharing a read-only object (eg, a movie) - whereas with Bitcoin, you're achieving distributed trustless consensus and appending it to a write-only (or append-only) database.
So I do understand that the problem which BitTorrent solves is much simpler than the problem which Bitcoin sets out to solve.
But still, it seems that there's got
to be a way to make this thing scale. It's p2p and it's got 500 times more computing power than all the supercomputers in the world combined - and so many brilliant and motivated and inspired people want this thing to succeed! And Bitcoin could be our civilization's last chance to steer away from the oncoming debt-based ditch of disaster we seem to be driving into!
It just seems that Bitcoin has got
to be able to scale somehow - and all these smart people working together should be able to come up with a solution which pretty much everyone can agree - in advance - will
Right? Right? A (probably irrelevant) tangent on algorithms and architecture and data structures
I'll finally weigh with my personal perspective - although I might be biased due to my background (which is more on the theoretical side of computer science).
My own modest - or perhaps radical - suggestion would be to ask whether we're really looking at all the best possible algorithms and architectures and data structures out there.
From this perspective, I sometimes worry that the overwhelming majority of the great minds working on the programming and game-theory stuff might come from a rather specific, shall we say "von Neumann" or "procedural" or "imperative" school of programming (ie, C and Python and Java programmers).
It seems strange to me that such a cutting-edge and important computer project would have so little participation from the great minds at the other
end of the spectrum of programming paradigms - namely, the "functional" and "declarative" and "algebraic" (and co-algebraic!) worlds.
For example, I was struck in particular by statements I've seen here and there (which seemed rather hubristic or lackadaisical to me - for something as important as Bitcoin
), that the specification
of Bitcoin and the blockchain doesn't really exist in any form other than the reference implementation(s)
languages such as C or Python?). Curry-Howard anyone?
I mean, many computer scientists are aware of the Curry-Howard isomorophism, which basically says that the relationship between a theorem and its proof is equivalent to the relationship between a specification and its implementation. In other words, there is a long tradition in mathematics (and in computer programming) of:
- separating the compact (and easy-to-check) statement of a theorem from the messy (and hard-to-check) details of its proof(s);
- separating the specification of a system from its implementation(s); and
- being able to prove that an implementation does indeed satisfy its specification.
And it's not exactly "turtles all the way down" either: a specification is generally simple and compact enough that a good programmer can usually simply visually inspect it to determine if it is indeed "correct" - something which is very difficult, if not impossible, to do with a program written in a procedural, implementation-oriented language such as C or Python or Java.
So I worry that we've got this tradition, from the open-source github C/Java programming tradition, of never actually writing our "specification", and only writing the "implementation". In mission-critical military-grade programming projects (which often use languages like Ada or Maude) this is simply not allowed. It would seem that a project as mission-critical as Bitcoin - which could literally be crucial for humanity's continued survival - should also use this kind of military-grade software development approach.
And I'm not saying rewrite the implementations in these kind of theoretical languages. But it might be helpful if the C/Python/Java programmers in the Bitcoin imperative programming world could build some bridges to the Maude/Haskell/ML programmers of the functional and algebraic programming worlds to see if any kind of useful cross-pollination might take place - between specifications and implementations.
For example, the JavaFAN formal analyzer for multi-threaded Java programs (developed using tools based on the Maude language) was applied to the Remote Agent AI program aboard NASA's Deep Space 1 shuttle, written in Java - and it took only a few minutes using formal mathematical reasoning to detect a potential deadlock which would have occurred years later during the space mission when the damn spacecraft was already way out around Pluto.
And "the Maude-NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) Protocol Analyzer (Maude-NPA) is a tool used to provide security proofs of cryptographic protocols and to search for protocol flaws and cryptosystem attacks."
These are open-source formal reasoning tools developed by DARPA and used by NASA and the US Navy to ensure that program implementations satisfy their specifications. It would be great if some of the people involved in these kinds of projects could contribute to help ensure the security and scalability of Bitcoin.
But there is a wide abyss between the kinds of programmers who use languages like Maude and the kinds of programmers who use languages like C/Python/Java - and it can be really hard to get the two worlds to meet. There is a bit of rapprochement between these language communities in languages which might be considered as being somewhere in the middle, such as Haskell and ML. I just worry that Bitcoin might be turning into being an exclusively C/Python/Java project (with the algorithms and practitioners traditionally of that community), when it could be more advantageous if it also had some people from the functional and algebraic-specification and program-verification community involved as well. The thing is, though: the theoretical practitioners are big on "semantics" - I've heard them say stuff like "Yes but a C / C++ program has no easily identifiable semantics". So to get them involved, you really have to first be able to talk about what
your program does (specification) - before proceeding to describe how
it does it (implementation). And writing high-level specifications is typically very hard using the syntax and semantics of languages like C and Java and Python - whereas specs are fairly easy to write in Maude - and not only that, they're executable, and you state and verify properties about them - which provides for the kind of debate Nick Szabo was advocating ("more computer science, less noise"). Imagine if we had an executable algebraic specification of Bitcoin in Maude, where we could formally reason about and verify certain crucial game-theoretical properties - rather than merely hand-waving and arguing and deploying and praying.
And so in the theoretical programming community you've got major research on various logics such as Girard's Linear Logic (which is resource-conscious) and Bruni and Montanari's Tile Logic (which enables "pasting" bigger systems together from smaller ones in space and time), and executable algebraic specification languages such as Meseguer's Maude (which would be perfect for game theory modeling, with its functional modules for specifying the deterministic parts of systems and its system modules for specifiying non-deterministic parts of systems, and its parameterized skeletons for sketching out the typical architectures of mobile systems, and its formal reasoning and verification tools and libraries which have been specifically applied to testing and breaking - and fixing - cryptographic protocols).
And somewhat closer to the practical hands-on world, you've got stuff like Google's MapReduce and lots of Big Data database languages developed by Google as well. And yet here we are with a mempool growing dangerously big for RAM on a single machine, and a 20-GB append-only list as our database - and not much debate on practical results from Google's Big Data databases.
(And by the way: maybe I'm totally ignorant for asking this, but I'll ask anyways: why the hell does the mempool have to stay in RAM? Couldn't it work just as well if it were stored temporarily on the hard drive?)
And you've got CalvinDB out of Yale which apparently provides an ACID layer on top of a massively distributed database.
Look, I'm just an armchair follower cheering on these projects. I can barely manage to write a query in SQL, or read through a C or Python or Java program. But I would argue two points here: (1) these languages may be too low-level and "non-formal" for writing and modeling and formally reasoning about and proving properties of mission-critical specifications
- and (2) there seem to be some Big Data tools already deployed by institutions such as Google and Yale which support global petabyte-size databases on commodity boxes with nice properties such as near-real-time and ACID - and I sometimes worry that the "core devs" might be failing to review the literature (and reach out to fellow programmers) out there to see if there might be some formal program-verification and practical Big Data tools out there which could be applied to coming up with rock-solid, 100% consensus proposals to handle an issue such as blocksize scaling, which seems to have become much more intractable than many people might have expected.
I mean, the protocol solved the hard stuff: the elliptical-curve stuff and the Byzantine General stuff. How the heck can we be falling down on the comparatively "easier" stuff - like scaling the blocksize?
It just seems like defeatism to say "Well, the blockchain is already 20-30 GB and it's gonna be 20-30 TB ten years from now - and we need 10 Mbs bandwidth now and 10,000 Mbs bandwidth 20 years from - assuming the evil Verizon and AT&T actually give us that - so let's just become a settlement platform and give up on buying coffee or banking the unbanked or doing micropayments, and let's push all that stuff into some corporate-controlled vaporware without even a whitepaper yet."
So you've got Peter Todd doing some possibly brilliant theorizing and extrapolating on the idea of "treechains" - there is a Let's Talk Bitcoin podcast from about a year ago where he sketches the rough outlines of this idea out in a very inspiring, high-level way - although the specifics have yet to be hammered out. And we've got Blockstream also doing some hopeful hand-waving about the Lightning Network.
Things like Peter Todd's treechains - which may be similar to the spark in some devs' eyes called Lightning Network - are examples of the kind of algorithm or architecture which might
manage to harness the massive computing power of miners and nodes in such a way that certain kinds of massive and graceful scaling become possible.
It just seems like a kindof tiny dev community working on this stuff. Being a C or Python or Java programmer should not be a pre-req to being able to help contribute to the specification (and formal reasoning and program verification) for Bitcoin and the blockchain.
XML and UML are crap modeling and specification languages, and C and Java and Python are even worse (as specification
languages - although as implementation
languages, they are of course fine).
But there are
serious modeling and specification languages out there, and they could be very helpful at times like this - where what we're dealing with is questions of modeling and specification (ie, "needs and requirements").
One just doesn't often see the practical, hands-on world of open-source github implementation-level programmers and the academic, theoretical world of specification-level programmers meeting very often. I wish there were some way to get these two worlds to collaborate on Bitcoin.
Maybe a good first step to reach out to the theoretical people would be to provide a modular executable algebraic specification of the Bitcoin protocol in a recognized, military/NASA-grade specification language such as Maude - because that's something the theoretical community can actually wrap their heads around, whereas it's very hard to get them to pay attention to something written only
as a C / Python / Java implementation (without an accompanying specification in a formal language).
They can't check whether the program does what it's supposed to do - if you don't provide a formal mathematical definition of what the program is supposed to do. Specification : Implementation :: Theorem : Proof
You have to remember: the theoretical community is very
aware of the Curry-Howard isomorphism. Just like it would be hard to get a mathematician's attention by merely showing them a proof
without telling also telling them what theorem
the proof is proving - by the same token, it's hard to get the attention of a theoretical computer scientist by merely showing them an implementation
without showing them the specification
that it implements.
Bitcoin is currently confronted with a mathematical or "computer science" problem: how to secure the network while getting high enough transactional throughput, while staying within the limited RAM, bandwidth and hard drive space limitations of current and future infrastructure. The problem only becomes a political and economic problem if we give up on trying to solve it as a mathematical and "theoretical computer science" problem.
There should be a plethora of whitepapers out now proposing algorithmic solutions to these scaling issues. Remember, all we have to do is apply the Byzantine General consensus-reaching procedure to a worldwide database which shuffles 2.1 quadrillion tokens among a few billion addresses. The 21 company has emphatically pointed out that racing to compute a hash to add a block is an "embarrassingly parallel" problem - very easy to decompose among cheap, fault-prone, commodity boxes, and recompose into an overall solution - along the lines of Google's highly successful MapReduce.
I guess what I'm really saying is (and I don't mean to be rude here), is that C and Python and Java programmers might not be the best qualified people to develop and formally prove the correctness of (note I do not say: "test", I say "formally prove the correctness of") these kinds of algorithms.
I really believe in the importance of getting the algorithms and architectures right - look at Google Search itself, it uses some pretty brilliant algorithms and architectures (eg, MapReduce, Paxos) which enable it to achieve amazing performance - on pretty crappy commodity hardware. And look at BitTorrent, which is truly p2p, where more demand leads to more supply.
So, in this vein, I will close this lengthy rant with an oddly specific link - which may or may not be able to make some interesting contributions to finding suitable algorithms, architectures and data structures which might help Bitcoin scale massively. I have no idea if this link could be helpful - but given the near-total lack of people from the Haskell and ML and functional worlds in these Bitcoin specification debates, I thought I'd be remiss if I didn't throw this out - just in case there might be something here which could help us channel the massive computing power of the Bitcoin network in such a way as to enable us simply sidestep this kind of desperate debate where both sides seem right because the other side seems wrong. https://personal.cis.strath.ac.uk/neil.ghani/papers/ghani-calco07
The above paper is about "higher dimensional trees". It uses a bit of category theory (not a whole lot) and a bit of Haskell (again not a lot - just a simple data structure called a Rose tree, which has a wikipedia page) to develop a very expressive and efficient data structure which generalizes from lists to trees to higher dimensions.
I have no idea if this kind of data structure could be applicable to the current scaling mess we apparently are getting bogged down in - I don't have the game-theory skills to figure it out.
I just thought that since the blockchain is like a list, and since there are some tree-like structures which have been grafted on for efficiency (eg Merkle trees) and since many of the futuristic scaling proposals seem to also involve generalizing from list-like structures (eg, the blockchain) to tree-like structures (eg, side-chains and tree-chains)... well, who knows, there might be some nugget of algorithmic or architectural or data-structure inspiration there. So... TL;DR:
(1) I'm freaked out that this blocksize debate has splintered the community so badly and dragged on so long, with no resolution in sight, and both sides seeming so right (because the other side seems so wrong).
(2) I think Bitcoin could gain immensely by using high-level formal, algebraic and co-algebraic program specification and verification languages (such as Maude including Maude-NPA, Mobile Maude parameterized skeletons, etc.) to specify (and possibly also, to some degree, verify) what
Bitcoin does - before translating to low-level implementation
languages such as C and Python and Java saying how
Bitcoin does it. This would help to communicate and reason about programs with much more mathematical certitude - and possibly obviate the need for many political and economic tradeoffs which currently seem dismally inevitable - and possibly widen the collaboration on this project.
(3) I wonder if there are some Big Data approaches out there (eg, along the lines of Google's MapReduce and BigTable, or Yale's CalvinDB), which could be implemented to allow Bitcoin to scale massively and painlessly - and to satisfy all stakeholders, ranging from millionaires to micropayments, coffee drinkers to the great "unbanked".
I’ve said it before and I have to say it again. I am shocked at how fast everything is moving. submitted by
When we started The Dollar Vigilante in 2010 we only wrote one issue per month and each month I’d have to think quite hard about the important issues to cover. There just wasn’t that much happening on a month to month basis.
Now, I have to literally filter through dozens of important things that have just occurred and try to select a few of them to focus on or this newsletter would be 100+ pages long.
The crypto space has become an entire topic on its own with so much happening that we are looking to bring on even more people onto the TDV team with a focus on cryptos, ICOs and trading. This will likely result in an add-on newsletter to TDV because just covering this space alone is worth 50 pages per month in research and analysis (I’ll briefly mention a number of interesting developments further below though). Stay tuned for more on that.
In the bitcoin space alone, ignoring all the other cryptos & ICOs, so much has occurred in just the last month.
The criminal Chinese government shut down three of the world’s largest exchanges and banned ICOs. JPMorgan has been attacking bitcoin as a fraud - which is laughable coming from that bunch. And the New York Agreement signatories proceeded further with the scheduled SegWit2x hard fork (which Juan Galt will cover in depth in this issue).
You’d think with all that happening and the uncertainty surrounding yet another bitcoin fork it would have seriously hurt the price of bitcoin.
Nope, bitcoin nearly doubled in the last month. Bitcoin just don’t care.
BITCOIN HITS ALL-TIME HIGHS NEAR $6,000
As I write, bitcoin is trading at $5600 after hitting a new all-time high of $5,844.18 on Sunday.
For the last three months I mentioned numerous times that I liked the short term prospects of bitcoin over the entire cryptocurrency space as a whole. And that has turned out to be correct as bitcoin has risen from a low of 37.82% dominance in the sector in June to 54.45% now.
The total market capitalization of all cryptocurrencies excluding bitcoin has fallen from $97 billion at the beginning of September to $79 billion today.
Meanwhile, bitcoin itself currently sits near $94 billion in market cap. It was only one year ago today that bitcoin had a market cap of just over $10 billion meaning it has increased nearly 1,000% in the last year in both market cap and price.
Not a bad year!
I recall many TDV subscribers lamenting how they had missed out on bitcoin after it had skyrocketed to $150 in 2013 after starting the year near $15. I said then that it was definitely not too late to get in.
The same happened after bitcoin surged through $1,000. And, I said the same, “it’s not too late.” When bitcoin hit $3,000 I said the same.
With it now near $6,000 I am telling you it is not too late. Here’s the main reason:
This is a chart of the money supply or value of gold, bitcoin, Chinese yuan, Japanese yen, euro and the US dollar.
You’ll notice one stands out as being miniscule. Bitcoin.
Gold is the next closest to bitcoin with a total value of approximately $7 trillion.
If bitcoin, which many including myself consider to be the digital version of gold were to one day be valued the same as gold it would have to rise 80x to a value, in today’s dollars, of over $450,000.
If bitcoin were ever to supplant the US dollar as a currency it’d have to rise nearly two-fold above that, for nearly $1 million per bitcoin.
Will it ever get there? Well, there is absolutely no way to know. And, if it does, it will take a long while.
Does it have the potential? Yes, absolutely. If we continue to live in a digital world and the fiat currencies of the world’s most indebted and bankrupt companies return to their intrinsic value of $0, then bitcoin would be the frontrunner to become the new world currency even more than gold due to all of its ease of use benefits.
It’s not going to get there without a fight though. And I expect nothing but volatility, crisis and chaos in the years ahead.
But consider the fact that there are only a total of 21 million bitcoins that will ever be available.
Some data shows that there are over 15 million millionaires in the world today. What if each one of them wanted to own just two bitcoins. There wouldn’t be enough.
And what if many of those millionaires begin to realize the entire fiat currency system was on the verge of collapse? The panic buying that would ensue would rise bitcoin, and to a lesser extent gold, to levels so high that sellers would eventually stop accepting fiat currencies whatsoever in exchange for bitcoin.
That’s where we could be headed.
In the meantime, though, with a rise of 1,000% in the last year a sizeable pullback is clearly possible.
Will it happen anytime soon? Truthfully, everything I am seeing says no.
Bitcoin, which once was just known by a few of us crazy people here around The Dollar Vigilante is now talked about at every level of business, banking and politics across the world… and a lot of the conversation is, “How do we get some?”
And, did I mention, the entire cryptocurrency space is moving forward at light speed.
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY ERUPTS
Considering I was one of the only people talking about blockchain about three years ago it is incredible to see the speed in which this technology is accelerating.
Russia has flip flopped on bitcoin countless times now and has just announced it will be r eleasing its own CryptoRuble (CR). Of course, it will be nothing like bitcoin as it cannot be mined and will be issued and controlled by the Russian mafia (government). CR can be exchanged for regular Rubles at any time — however, if the holder is unable to explain the origin of the CR then a 13% extortion tax will be levied.
China may be following in Russia’s footsteps as the Director of the Digital Currency Research Institute under the People’s Bank of China hinted towards the creation of a state-backed cryptocurrency.
I expect most fiat currencies to become digital over time which will make most people accustomed to using digital currencies… from there it is only a click away to trade in or out of bitcoin and the myriad of other decentralized cryptocurrencies.
Coinshares, the issuer behind the world’s first Bitcoin Exchange Traded Note (ETN), has announced that they will be launching the world’s first Ether ETN on the Nasdaq Stockholm.
The Dubai Land Department — the government arm responsible for the registration and organization of real estate in the emirate — is now processing and implementing all real estate transactions on a blockchain, with the ultimate goal to have all Dubai properties recorded on a blockchain within the next 2-3 years.
This is one area in which I have no trouble with the government using blockchain technology: in the recording of property rights and activities. It will, over time, make government unnecessary in such activities and will enable the economy to transact with more trust and less expense in the form of lawyers.
Vitalik Buterin, the founder of Ethereum, has confirmed that 63% of central banks are working with Ethereum. Moreover, 44% of public institutions and 50,000 developers are building applications on the platform.
IBM has announced a partnership with Stellar Lumens , a blockchain-based payment processing company, to move money across borders throughout the South Pacific. Merchants and consumers will be able to send money to another country in near real-time, accelerating a payments process that typically takes days.
IBM hopes to use the blockchain network to process up to 60% of all cross-border payments in the South Pacific’s retail foreign exchange corridors by early 2018. The Stellar Lumens coin appreciated 150% after the announcement.
Basecoin, a form of stable coin, has attracted investment from some of Silicon Valley’s largest funds including 1confirmation, Andreessen Horowitz, Bain Capital Ventures, Digital Currency Group, MetaStable Capital, Pantera Capital and PolyChain Capital.
Basecoin is lauded by investors for its unique approach to what's been called the "holy grail" of cryptocurrency – a digital asset able to keep its value free from volatility. The basecoin protocol can be pegged to the value of any asset or basket of assets, dynamically adjusting its market price through the creative use of a combination of tokens.
Grid+, the blockchain-based company aiming to provide consumers with direct access to wholesale energy markets, has partnered with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), Japan’s largest energy utility.
TEPCO aims to leverage its partnership to learn about the potential benefits of Ethereum for decentralizing the exchange of energy, while Grid+ hopes to learn how to refine its algorithms to purchase cheaper energy.
Winding Tree, a decentralized market for travel booking, has announced a partnership with Lufthansa, the largest German airline. The Winding Tree ICO starts on November 1.
And, Overstock CEO Patrick Byrne has confirmed that his security token exchange, tZERO, will be pursuing an ICO sometime before Thanksgiving. Byrne suggested that the ICO could raise as much as $500m, which would be double the record for an ICO raise.
I interviewed Patrick Byrne on Anarchast last month. You can see that here.
And, Vanuatu this month announced that it will accept bitcoin in exchange for citizenship— 44 bitcoin to be exact .
And we barely mentioned any of the ICO news. That’s a whole other area on its own.
I wanted to post this chart, though, of the main ICO’s return to date.
As can be seen, buying a small amount of certain ICOs, which have had returns of 10x, 100x and even 1,000x can be very profitable but you do need to be careful.
We’ll continue to cover them here and are increasing our research and analysis resources dramatically to do so.
UPDATE ON EOS
Speaking of ICOs we have had a rough start with EOS which unfortunately, at the moment, is on the right side (loss side) of the above chart.
Many subscribers asked me to interview Dan Larimer again and, as I always try to do, I obliged.
This interview is exclusive to subscribers for the next 48 hours and then we will put it live to the public.
Here is the video .
*This video was also livestreamed on the TDV subscribers only Facebook Group here . Due to many things happening so quickly we don’t have time to even email out alerts like this but try to post if we can in the FB group. I realize some people don’t like FBIbook for obvious reasons but even just having a sock (fake) account set-up to access the group gets you access to a lot of valuable realtime info.
To summarize, Dan believes the drop in the price of EOS isn’t due to their long ICO period but mostly attributable to the Chinese ban on ICOs. According to Dan, 50% of buying was coming from China.
I’ve seen a number of people on the internet and even amongst subscribers questioning EOS. That is fairly normal.
I was one of the only people in the world lauding bitcoin at $3 in 2011 and still to this day people say it is a scam, a ponzi scheme or a fraud. I obviously stopped listening to them a long time ago.
When I first featured Ethereum in January 2016 near $2 there was a lot of criticism… and while it did rise to the $10 level fairly quickly afterwards it plateaued there for nearly a year bringing out a lot of catcalls about how it was dead.
So, with EOS, it has gotten off to a rocky start but it is also very early stage… and I have said that. However, by the time it is launched in June the price will likely be dramatically higher. So, you can wait and pay more later when the world realizes what a huge advance it is or you can get in early and take a few lumps waiting for the market to realize its value.
Dan Larimer outlined a lot of good information on EOS in our interview but afterwards, off the record, he went into detail on many of the projects they are working on… and I can tell you, they have ‘world changing” written all over them.
The market doesn’t know or realize a lot of it. And EOS has an absolutely massive bankroll, in the hundreds of millions of dollars, to bring all their projects (which are all related to or linked with EOS) to market.
And Dan has an amazing vision. He understands what the market needs and wants - which is often a downfall of most techies - and knows how to get there.
He announced this week in the official Telegram channel that EOS will be the first blockchain with unprecedented sub-second block times of 500 milliseconds and sub-second last irreversible block (LIB) providing finality. In other words, the time between a user sending a transaction or a command and being included in the blockchain could be consistently under a second compared to 10 minutes on Bitcoin.
So, with a market capitalization of $400 million currently - and a bankroll of almost the same amount - to me this is a no brainer lottery ticket.
Sure, like any new product it may fail. But, it may also succeed… and has a good chance of doing so in my opinion. And, if it does, we’ll laugh at how cheap it currently is for the opportunity.
In other words, stick with it and if you bought earlier at higher levels look to average down.
SUMMING UP THE CRYPTO SPACE
Like I said, A LOT is going on in the crypto space. It isn’t going to go away overnight no matter how many times Peter Schiff says it will.
Make sure to stick with us here at The Dollar Vigilante, the only financial newsletter in the world that has covered bitcoin and cryptos since 2011. Still to this day most financial newsletters don’t even cover this space… or even avoid it.
Their, and their subscribers, loss. Keep this in mind with bitcoin, too. Since bitcoin was launched in 2009 it has actually been in a near-state of hyperinflation… a type of hyperinflation that was necessary in order to widely distribute the coins. That time of high inflation is nearly over just as quite a large part of the world is just waking up to bitcoin.
What happens when increased demand meets decreasing supply? I think we all know the answer to that basic economics question.
So many other things have happened in the last two weeks but we only have so much time and mindspace to cover it all.
I didn’t even touch on what was quite obviously a false flag in Las Vegas. All the typical 9/11 type scenarios have occurred along with a storyline from the LameStream Media and the government that make zero sense.
Insiders sold stock of MGM prior to the event? Check .
A surge in buying in ammunition starting on 9/11 leading up to the event? Check.
Eyewitness to multiple shooters dead? Check .
Predictive programming? Check… as I’ll outline here.
It is well known by many that Hollywood and the music industry are largely controlled by elites. In fact it also well known that many popular stars are used for predictive programming purposes to influence the opinions of the masses.
It appears as if country singer Jason Aldean is one of these celebrities that is being used to convey subliminal messages along with others.
As we have come to learn, many of the nefarious plots that are planned by elites are planned decades in advance if not scores of years. With that in mind, there exists an Illuminati card game that contains a “Las Vegas” card. On this card are depicted a jack and ace, something you might see in a game of black jack, along with a picture of a sun.
The game created in 1996 has predicted multiple false flags and operations carried out by the elite including the Pentagon blowing up and 9/11.
In blackjack, the jack has the value “10” the ace has the value 1 or 11. In this case, it appears the symbology used on this card is conveying that the value of this ace is “1” - A is the first letter of the alphabet and in numerology - which the elites strongly believe in - it has the value “1”.
So when you put the two values together you end up with 10/1 - the same day the Las Vegas shooting occurred. Coincidence?
Well, if that was all coincidence, which it very likely wasn’t, what’s more, is that Jason Aldean has a nearly identical tattoo that depicts a jack and ace plus his initials are also “JA” the same exact letters. Also, Aldean has a picture of a black sun in the same tattoo. Likewise, sun symbology is heavily used on Jason’s website and album cover artwork.
As many of our enlightened readers probably know, the sun is worshiped by many secret societies, perhaps most famously, the freemasons.
Remember, this game has existed for more than 20 years. So, the Las Vegas shooting has probably been years in the making.
Just take a look at what went on with MK Ultra and the history of such government operations such as Project Mockingbird. This kind of manipulation has been going on for a long time.
Another one of Jason’s tattoos is a black cross depicting a red star - a pentagram - in the center of it.
And as many people know, many of the Illuminati elites worship satan or have Luciferian beliefs of some kind.
And, I didn’t even mention the location of the event, right in front of the giant black pyramid and numerous occult symbology… I get into this in a soon to be released Anarchast episode with Mark Passio.
Just remember nothing happens by accident.
Same ol’, same ol’.
If there is one heartening thing I’ve noticed is that a lot more people are questioning these events. Ten years ago when I was adamant that 9/11 was an inside job false flag death ritual most people thought I was crazy. Now, many agree.
And now, many are questioning these events… a positive in my opinion.
What will occur in the next two weeks prior to our next issue? I think it’s a safe bet to say “lots”.
So far we have made it through September and halfway through October with no market crash. As I write the Dow we just crossed 23,000.
The number 23 is quite an occult number . Could the powers behind the scene be targeting 23,000 before a planned crash?
We’ll have to wait and see. As you’ll see below, though, Ed Bugos is not giving up on “the big short.”
I’ll be in Austin for the Texas Bitcoin Conference on October 28th and 29th. You can get a discount to the conference by using the code “Anarchast”. And then I’ll be going to Lisbon, Portugal for Steemfest from November 1st to 5th.
And, of course, don’t forget about Anarchapulco from February 15-17th, then Cryptopulco on February 18th and the TDV Internationalization & Investment Summit on February 19th!
For those mostly interested in cryptocurrency, finance and investment, Cryptopulco and the TDV Summit the next day are the events to go to.
You can check out the websites to see all the amazing speakers lined up including Trace Mayer, Roger Ver, Bruce Fenton, Dan Larimer and many, many others.
And, unlike many other conferences most of the speakers will be around the entire week, and often poolside, where you can casually chat. That also includes myself, Ed Bugos, Juan Galt, Luis Fernando Mises and the rest of the team from TDV.
Phew. So much going on… but we are happy to be one of your trusted sources to help you survive and prosper through it all.
Thank you for that! And thank you for subscribing!
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